Introducing Vitamin D

The Sunshine Vitamin

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Yes, it’s true our exposure to sunlight, given the right season and enough time in the sun, has an important role in determining our Vitamin D status. With the help of sunlight, vitamin D is synthesized by the body from a precursor derived from cholesterol. Vitamin D exists as either vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The active from of vitamin D is actually a hormone that targets organs – most notably the intestines, kidneys, and bones. In the intestine, vitamin D is involved in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. In the bone, it assists in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, helping bones grow denser and stronger as they absorb and deposit these minerals.

Why is Vitamin D Important?

One of the main roles of vitamin D is to facilitate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Consequently, a vitamin D deficiency creates a calcium deficiency, with significant consequences to bone health. Among children and adolescents, it may cause rickets and adversely affect peak bone mass. In adults, vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

Sources of Vitamin D

Sunlight – exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) rays is necessary for the body to synthesize vitamin D from the precursor in the skin. It’s not known exactly how much time is needed in the sun to make enough vitamin D to meet the body’s requirements. This is because there are a number of factors that can affect how vitamin D is made, such as your skin colour or how much skin you have exposed

Natural food sources of vitamin D include red meat, liver, egg yolks, and oily fish such as salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel and fresh tuna. A selection of fortified foods from fat spreads and choice breakfast cereals may be available at the market. 

Bioavailability of Vitamin D

There is very little information on the bioavailability of vitamin D. It is assumed that the food matrix has little effect on absorption. Bioavailability also varies among individuals and depends on the level of circulating vitamin-D-binding protein.

What Influences our Vitamin D Status?

Inadequate exposure to sunlight is the primary risk factor for poor vitamin D status. The use of sunscreen, higher levels of melanin in skin (i.e., dark skin), skin coverings (clothes, veils), and time of day are factors that decrease exposure to UVB rays. The distance from the equator is also a factor for UVB exposure; people living in latitudes above or below 40 degrees from the equator will be unable to form vitamin D from the skin precursor during the winter months.

Breast milk is a poor source of vitamin D. Children who are exclusively breastfed and have no or little sun exposure require vitamin D supplements to meet requirements.

Remember! While sunlight is important for our vitamin D levels be careful not to burn in the sun. Take care to cover up or protect your skin with sunscreen before your skin starts to turn red or burn.

Download our complete vitamin and mineral guide here

Here is a recipe to easily incorporate Vitamin D rich foods in your diet!

Salmon Fish Cakes* 

Photo credit BBC Good Food

Ingredients
450g floury potato (cut into chunks) 
350g salmon ( 3 fillets)
2 tsp tomato ketchup
1 tsp English mustard
½ lemon zest grated 
1 heaped tbsp chopped parsley
1 heaped tbsp chopped dill
3 tbsp plain flour
1 egg beaten
100g dried breadcrumb
4 tbsp sunflower oil

Method
1. Heat the grill. Place the potatoes in a pan of water, bring to the boil, cover and cook for 12-15 mins until tender. Drain and leave to steam-dry, then mash. Meanwhile, season the salmon and grill for 5-6 mins until just cooked. Cool for a few mins, then break into large flakes.

2. Mix the potato, ketchup, mustard, zest, herbs and some seasoning. Lightly mix in the salmon, taking care not to break it up too much. Shape into 4 large fish cakes.

3. Put the flour, egg and breadcrumbs in 3 shallow dishes. Dip the cakes into the flour, dust off any excess, then dip in the egg, and finally coat in breadcrumbs. Heat the oil in a large pan. Fry the cakes over a medium-low heat for 3-4 mins each side until deep golden and heated through. Serve with salad and lemon wedges.

*Adapted from BBC Food Recipes online

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Culture is a Road to Improved Nutrition

Discovering the Mayan ways

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Edward (Ted) Fischer is Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Center for Latin American Studies and the Institute for Coffee Studies at Vanderbilt University. Prof Fischer is also the founder of Maní+, a social enterprise in Guatemala that develops and produces locally-sourced complementary foods to fight malnutrition, and serves as an advisor to the World Health Organization on Wellbeing and the Cultural Contexts of Health.

Prof Fischer posits that food is about much more than macro- and micronutrients, arguing that it is instead intimately linked to identity and social relations in his article, ‘Beyond Nutrition: Eating, Innovation, and Cultures of Possibility’ published in the Sight and Life magazine. In his opinion, food is an integral part of our identity, and any attempts to change diets need to take this into account. The composition also explains why culture should not be seen as an obstacle to health, but as a source of potential. In addition, he says that public health and nutritional interventions should work with, rather than against, this dynamism, and beneficiaries should be treated as clients, customers, and collaborators, and as sources of inspiration and innovation, as well as mouths to feed.

Here at Sight and Life we had an opportunity to talk with Prof Fischer and discuss his continual fascination with the Maya way of life. During our interview, he shared how it led to a realization that, far from being a hindrance, culture is an aid to improving nutrition.

Sight and Life (SAL): What inspired your passion for the topic of eating, innovation, and the cultures of possibility?

Prof Edward Fischer (EF): As a cultural anthropologist, I have spent the better part of my life and career (the last 25 years) working with the Maya people of highland Guatemala. I have cumulatively lived and worked there for several years, I visit several times a year, and I have deep personal as well as professional ties. Maya culture and traditions are endlessly fascinating to me, and I have spent countless hours in the fields of maize, beans, and squash and around the hearth watching women make tortillas and slow-cook black beans. Maya families tend to have a close sense of kinship and community; while most Maya are very poor in material and economic terms, they have a richness of social ties that we have lost.

The beauty of Maya culture is in contrast to their history of colonization, marginalization, and violence. Half the population of Guatemala is Maya, and yet they are largely excluded from national economic and political life. There is also still the palpable legacy of the violence of the 1970s and 1980s, when Maya communities were intentionally targeted for extermination by the US-backed military.

 

SAL: How do you explore this through your research?

EF: My work looks at these paradoxes: How the Maya adapt and co-opt the globalized economy for their own ends (by growing broccoli for export to the US, for example), and how we can understand wellbeing in the context of material poverty.

When I was in graduate school, we learned that the Maya were especially short because of some local evolutionary adaptation or a genetic bottleneck. If you have ever been to Guatemala, you will have noted the heights: Maya men average just 1.59 meters (5.21 feet) and Maya women 1.47 meters (4.82 feet). They were thought to be the ‘pygmies of Central America.’ However, research by anthropologist Barry Bogin has shown that this is not genetic; the difference in height is virtually all nutritional and environmental.

I saw in development programs a lot of distribution of imported malnutrition products, which struck me as odd and counterproductive in a predominately agricultural country, with a majority of those suffering from malnutrition being rural farmers. For that reason, I started looking into malnutrition, and how to develop something locally that would support farmers.

SAL: Were there any unexpected findings?

EF: We discovered a number of surprising things. First, there is an epidemic of early childhood malnutrition, but also of adolescent and adult obesity: This is the dual burden of malnutrition. Thus, it is very important that interventions be targeted at specific at-risk children within families.

Second, I was surprised to see, behind the scenes of the malnutrition world, that well-intentioned humanitarian workers often saw Maya culture as a problem, not something to be celebrated and nourished. Many want to “overcome” traditional beliefs to get people to eat well in specific ways (such as a certain number of calories, the amount of protein, and so on).

In view of that, I wrote this article largely as a response — to show how culture can be used to improve nutrition, and that it is more than an obstacle. Also, to underline the important subjective, affective, and emotional aspects to food that are real and important (even if they are not measured in neat numbers of grams or RDA), and that we who are fighting malnutrition need to engage, rather than fight.

SAL: Did your work present any unexpected challenges?

EF: Fieldwork in difficult places always presents an endless string of challenges, logistical, cultural, and intellectual. This is even more so when doing interventions. As we were developing the Mani+ project in Guatemala, we encountered one obstacle after another, not least in the food science of developing a new product. The peanut oils interact with plastics in ways I could not anticipate. Packaging solids and liquids is straightforward, but getting pastes into little sachets is almost impossible because of the consistency. Therefore, when students ask what being a successful social entrepreneur requires, I tell them that it takes naïve optimism. I saw a problem with malnutrition in Guatemala, and what I thought was a relatively simple solution. Had I known all of the reasons my ‘relatively simple’ solution was not so simple, all of the reasons that it should not work, I probably would not have started. However, I was naively optimistic. Hence, when the problems started coming, I dealt with them one by one as they arose, thinking each one would be the last one to solve and then we would end up with our product. However, had I know at the start the string of obstacles we would face, I would not have begun.

In addition, taking culture seriously means working in local languages and local communities. In Guatemala alone, there are 23 Mayan languages spoken. The easy fix is to do all programming in Spanish, the country’s official language. That works fine in urban areas, but in the rural villages, where malnutrition is most prevalent, many do not speak Spanish well and women are the least likely to speak Spanish in Maya communities. Therefore, we have had to go through the hard work of translating materials, and training native speakers to do educational sessions with our program. It is not easy, but it makes all the difference.

Here is a photo gallery of typical Mayan meals captured during Ted Fischer’s time in Guatemala:

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Why Ethnographic Research?

Insight behind gathering research data from a cultural perspective

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Dr Eva C Monterrosa is the senior scientific manager at Sight and Life and the co-author, with Prof Gretel H Pelto, graduate professor at Cornell University, Ithaca, of “The Mother-Child Food Relationship in the Study of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices”, published in the ‘Focus on Food Culture’ edition of Sight and Life magazine. This article shines a light on how biology and culture come together at the level of the diet by reviewing infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Far from ‘story-telling’, Dr Monterrosa says research that incorporates a cultural perspective achieves two objectives: First, to generate explanatory frameworks that help us understand and generate hypotheses about health behaviors; and, second, to design programs to improve behaviors.

When we spoke with Dr Monterrosa about how she came to this topic of research, she had some stimulating answers:

Sight and Life magazine (SAL): Why did you choose this topic – what inspired it?

Eva Monterrosa (EM): In my opinion, public health nutrition research design is focused on getting the results we want – often at the expense of understanding ‘how’ results were achieved. But it is precisely the ‘how’ (or the ‘black box’) that can help us design programs that achieve our goals. A successful outcome in one setting might not lead to success when it is replicated in a different context. By context, I don’t just mean a different country. Even replication in the the same type of institution, such as a hospital or clinic, can be a challenge. In essence, we must understand the context to know what factors are driving our results, and how to adapt interventions to fit our context. Ethnographic research gives us the tools to do this.

Guatemala research
Dr Monterrosa and colleague researcher watching mothers in Guatemala make pap food for their young children. Photo credit Eva Monterrosa

 

SAL: What challenges do you face when doing this type of research?

EM: I think my greatest challenge is people telling me, often not in a nice way, that my research is ‘story telling’, or worse yet saying that what I do is ‘not research’. This however, speaks to another predisposition in nutrition science: That research is only valid if it uses a randomized trial design , or uses complex statistical procedures. Don’t get me wrong – I can hold my weight when it comes to running a complex analysis of longitudinal data, but I understand this work’s limitations. Moreover, when you deal with food and eating habits, these are complex social phenomena that cannot be reducible simply to numbers.

In the research Prof Pelto and I share in the article, we use ethnographic methods, such as observations, interviews, and other cognitive elicitation techniques, including free listing, and card-sorting exercises. The selection of the methods is always guided by a research question. One must skillfully apply interviewing techniques, including careful wording of questions and precise ordering to reduce reporting bias. Lastly, a rigorous analysis of the text data is necessary to elicit solid insights based on the data.

SAL: What has been the most surprising result or outcome from your research?

EM: When study participants ask clarifying questions – their questions lead to all sorts of wonderful discoveries. I recall from my Mexico work that I asked one of my first participants: ‘What meals do you prepare at home?’ And she asked, ‘Meals for whom? My family or my children?’ and this was an unexpected answer that led to a wonderful discovery of child-appropriate meals, which added another dimension to our data analysis. We went from just describing complementary feeding practices to understanding how mothers and children inhabit the same ‘eating space’. It was fascinating!

SAL: Why is applied ethnographic research for nutrition science important?

EM: Two pieces are featured in this issue of Sight and Life magazine, because I want our readers to understand the explanatory power of ethnographic methods, and how this work can help their scientific inquiries or programs. It is not about the biological perspective versus the cultural perspective. That is counterproductive. We need a holistic view of nutrition science.

SAL: Do you think people will listen?

EM: I hope so! Prof Pelto developed the biocultural framework in the late 1970s as a framework to examine the different domains that in interaction determine dietary and eating practices. Today, there is a new generation of scientists seeking to address the complexity of eating practices. We are seeing a rise in training on mixed-method designs, excellent research question(s), solid training in ethnographic methods, and the analytical procedures to elucidate patterns in the data.

Guatemala
As a guest, people are always curious as to why you visit their communities. This bright, young girl didn’t leave my side the whole time we were conducting focus group discussions in her village. Photo credit Eva Monterrosa

SAL: How is your research used?

EM: Much of the work that we do is used to develop programs. A lot of the nutrition research that draws on the biological perspective has an impact on the policy sphere, for example, in helping to set recommendations of vitamin A or calcium. As for the ‘how’ to develop programs for administering vitamin A or calcium? That is a whole different research phase, but it is the space that our research inhabits.

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Announcing the NEW sightandlife.org

Check out the features & information now available

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We are proud to reveal the NEW sightandlife.org!

Our redesigned website is now equipped with enhanced navigation and functionality for an improved user experience and a robust blog full of engaging posts. 

The design and large visual elements of the website are visually pleasing while the original content is valuable for the audiences within the nutrition sector. Created with the user experience in mind, the site boasts many new features to help users quickly and easily navigate the site to find relevant information.

We invite you to explore the new attributes highlighted below:

About Us: Learn more about Sight and Life and our dedication to eradicating all forms of malnutrition in this section through our vision and strategy that is being carried out by our talented leadership team and board members. Additionally, this page tells the story of our history starting in 1986, with an original goal to be at the forefront of global efforts to improve vitamin A nutrition, to today serving as a nutrition think tank.

Our Work: Take a look at Sight and Life’s projects around the world and more specifically in Africa, Asia, and South America. This interactive page shares each of our projects which are divided into categories including research, advocacy, public health, humanitarian, or social business. We have established a distinguished alliance consisting of academia, research partners, and funders working collectively to eliminate all forms of malnutrition. Together, we discover and implement sustainable solutions, grounded on solid scientific evidence, to improve the lives of those in most need. 

News: The latest happenings in the nutrition atmosphere, from newly released reports and guidelines to important announcements, will be posted and keep our readers up-to-date.

Blog: Visit the blog to find insightful and scientific posts relating to nutrition. Keep tabs on this page as we will continue rolling out new and original posts including interesting perspectives from nutrition thought leaders and interviews with select authors fromm the latest issue of the Sight and Life magazine.

Resources: Sight and Life provides a range of educational materials on malnutrition issues. This section is filled with the current, and past editions dating back to 2005, of the Sight and Life magazine and supplements along with our highly sought after infographics. In addition, we have books, brochures, and documentaries to support the information needs of health workers, scientists, representatives of governmental/non-governmental agencies, and the media.

Newsletter: Sign-up to receive the latest news from Sight and Life in your inbox. We are also active on social media. Follow us on FacebookTwitterLinkedInYouTube and Instagram.

We hope you enjoy our new, user-friendly website! A BIG thank you to the eyeloveyou.ch team for outfitting Sight and Life with a fantastic new website. 

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CENF 2017

Impressions from the Central Eurasian Nutrition Forum

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Sight and Life was a major sponsor of the first Central Eurasian Nutrition Forum (CENF), which was held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia from June 7 to 9, 2017. The three-day forum was hosted by the Mongolian Ministry of Health and the Mongolian Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Light Industry, Standing Committee on Social Policy, Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia, and was excellently organized by the Mongolian Health Initiative (MHI). CENF 2017 builds on a workshop at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University, which took place in October 2016 and was organized by Radcliffe Institute Fellow Dr. Ganmaa Davaasambuu.

CENF
Dr. Undraa and Dr. Ganmaa at the Central Eurasian Nutrition Forum

Dr. Ganmaa (as she is known by her Mongolian fellow citizens) is a long-time collaborator with Sight and Life in assessing the micronutrient situation in Mongolia, and is the founder of the MHI, which has conducted a nationwide micronutrient survey among Mongolian adults. The forum was attended by about 200 representatives from the government (ministers and members of parliament), academia (domestic and international), the private sector, and technical partners such as GAIN, UNICEF, FFI, FAO, WHO and Sight and Life

MHI created a first-class dramaturgy, taking the forum to the relevant political decision-makers. The first day took place in the Ministry of Health, the second in the Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Light Industry, and the last day in the Mongolian Parliament. The organizers kept me very busy not only with a presentation entitled “Central Eurasia’s Position in the Global Nutrition Ecosystem”, but also as a panelist and moderator, and invited me to provide the closing remarks on day one, right after my midnight arrival in Ulaanbaatar.      

A Look at the Mongolian Diet

Mongolia has made major progress in terms of reducing stunting and low birth-weight over the last two decades. However, Mongolians still face significant deficiencies in micronutrients, particularly vitamins A, D, C, B1, B2, B6, and folate, as well as rising rates of overweight and obesity, and related non-communicable diseases.

mongolia nutriton

Mongolia is a typical example of the so-called double burden of malnutrition, viz. concurrent under- and over nutrition. The diet is dominated by flour, meat, and dairy products, with very poor fruit and vegetable consumption, and is high in salt, sugar, and saturated and trans fats. According to FAO statistics, Mongolia is the country with the second-highest levels of meat consumption, the eleventh-highest levels of milk consumption, and the ninth-lowest levels of fruit and vegetable consumption and the third-lowest levels of seafood consumption per capita. The poor dietary diversity (see Graph 1) explains much of the malnutrition situation in the country. Moreover, the latitude (Ulaanbaatar is 47°6′ N) only allows for vitamin D production in the skin during the few summer months and, due to the high altitude (a large part of the country is over 1,000 m above sea-level), the cold requires warm clothes covering the skin.

mongolia
Graph 1: Sources of Calories among Urban Male Adults

Still, the high prevalence of vitamin D and A deficiency came as a surprise to me, because of the high levels of consumption of dairy, which is usually a good source for these vitamins. This may be due to the production system: The majority of Mongolian milk is produced by pastoralists dependent on arid grassland (the Mongolian Steppe and the Gobi Desert) yielding dry pasture with a low provitamin A carotenoid content, and the livestock suffers from the same limited vitamin D synthesis as do humans. (When I sent a picture of what I called the Mongolian grassland to the Sight and Life team, the immediate question was, “Where is the grass?”) Milk production ceases in the winter due to the limited availability of feed, and milk consumption becomes even more dependent on imports, which are primarily supplied to the urban area.

A view of the Mongolian grassland. Where is the grass?

Stunting prevalence is moderate, at 10.8%, but is a public health concern, with 20% in Western Mongolia reflecting significant inequalities in the country. Another matter of concern is the declining breastfeeding rate. This was at 57% in 2005, and at only 47% in 2013, which is below the World Health Assembly (WHA) target of 50%.

Progress in Mongolia

But there is very good news! Since the workshop at Harvard last October, there has been significant progress. Today, the Mongolian Parliament has a fortification working committee, and a draft fortification law, which is considering wheat flour, milk, and vegetable oil for fortification. However, I would hope that fortification becomes mandatory, and that there is scope for other staples to be considered.

Next steps include the passing of the fortification bill in Fall by parliament, the establishment of comprehensive fortification standards, and investment in laboratory capacity to ensure that foods are adequately fortified.

Impressions from CENF 2017

I believe that the CENF provides an excellent platform for developing the nutritional agenda, not only in Mongolia, but also across Central Eurasia, recognizing that food fortification is a cost-effective strategy for tackling the ailments from micronutrient deficiencies throughout the region.

My personal takeaway from the CENF is that it requires vision, passion, scientific evidence, and inspirational leadership to make a difference, and that Mongolia has two great female leaders in Dr. Ganmaa and Dr. Undraa, Member of the Hural (Parliament) of Mongolia, both of whom champion the mitigation of micronutrient malnutrition in their home country. The 2018 forum will be organized in Tajijikstan and will continue the discussions regarding the nutritional priorities for the Central Eurasian region.

Download the declaration for further details here.

Take a look at a few moments from CENF 2017 captured by Mr. Gerelbadrakh.

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Eggciting Innovation

Eggs for Improved Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition

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The statistics show the continued, and sadly in some cases growing, prevalence of malnutrition in a number of countries. The 2015 Global Nutrition Report (GNR) had as one of its key messages, “Although a great deal of progress is being made in reducing malnutrition, it is still too slow and too uneven.” And the 2016 GNR just launched this month, states that “Malnutrition and diet are by far the biggest risk factors for the global burden of disease: every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition.” Addressing nutrient (macro and micro) deficiencies amongst the most vulnerable, usually women and children is proving to be a ‘hard egg to crack’ and requires disruptive ideas and real innovation.

Eggs

Enter the humble egg

Eaten since the beginning of time; eaten almost everywhere in the world; relatively easy to obtain; adaptable to many different types of cooking techniques and; an affordable source of highly digestible protein, we believe that the time has come to re-think and innovate around the humble egg!

We are not alone in our thinking, and Iannotti et al. have written an excellent review article that eloquently positions the egg as offering real potential to improve maternal and child nutrition in developing countries. Studies promoting egg consumption for women and children as part of wider dietary improvements show that, child growth indicators are significantly improved in the intervention group compared to controls and a recent breakthrough research study shows that all nine essential amino acids were significantly lower in stunted children compared with non-stunted children. This is important because it tells us that stunted children are not receiving sufficient quality protein from their diets.

Did we put all our eggs in one basket?

Could this research point to the fact that in nutrition’s zeal, over the last four decades, to focus on ensuring that children received sufficient micronutrients (particularly vitamin A, iodine, iron, zinc, and folate), that protein fell off the agenda? It would seem that the widespread assumption that children were receiving enough protein from their basic diet was incorrect. Now is the time to realise that it is not ‘either/or’ but rather that optimal child growth and thus development, depends on addressing deficits of both protein and micronutrients. This calls for ensuring adequate micronutrient and protein in the diet especially during critical life stages – pregnancy, lactation, infancy and adolescence. We need to take a holistic approach and embrace the farm to flush approach anchored in food systems (take a look at this Sight and Life magazine focusing on food systems), so as not to neglect any of the nutrients as we look to future solutions that can be scaled up in order to have the impact that the 2016 GNR rightly puts under the spotlight.

Don’t count your chickens before they hatch

While eggs are a highly nutritious food source, both the productivity of laying hens and the nutritional content of their eggs are, to a certain extent, a function of the hen’s dietary intake. The reality is that for laying hens, an optimally micronutrient fortified diet improves egg production in numerous ways – increased egg numbers, improved egg weights, percentage lay and increased feed efficiency. Interestingly, for many micronutrients, egg content responds rapidly (within a few weeks) to dietary changes; transfer efficiency, from feed to egg, does depend on the micronutrient – high for vitamin A, selenium, iodine, and DHA; medium for vitamin D and E and; low for folic acid, niacin, and iron. This points, to a real opportunity to improve the nutritional value of eggs with only limited input in the feed and in egg eating populations requires no need for dietary behaviour change communication, which we know to be both costly and not always highly successful.

Projections from FAO suggest significant growth in egg consumption in developing countries. Even in countries considered to have largely vegetarian population, such as India, data shows that the diet of many Indian households is diversifying to include more animal source foods, a trend that has been particularly notable in rural populations. This makes the idea of tapping into the potential of eggs extremely eggciting. A ‘powdered’ micronutrient feed supplement for chickens could contribute to solutions for farmer through improved egg production and, for consumer by providing added nutritional value. An additional advantage of eggs is their environmentally friendly packaging. 

The proof of the pudding is in the eating

There is research to show the benefits of consuming fortified eggs. A 2009 study showed that feeding DHA-fortified eggs to infants and pregnant mothers improved infant visual acuity and attention and other studies have found that DHA fortified eggs were associated with increased gestational duration and infant birth size. In addition to DHA, there is literature to support the role of eggs in reducing deficiencies of iodine and vitamin A and even decreased anemia.

“Leaders don’t wait for problems to lay eggs before they attempt dealing with them.” 
– Israelmore Ayivor

A range of nutrients delivering various levels of their recommended daily allowance could relatively easily be added to eggs through the chicken feed. There are many avenues to explore, such as supplying micronutrient feed supplement directly to existing farmer networks or to women running poultry programs. Simultaneous social marketing campaigns could encourage egg consumption and an assessment over time could be undertaken to provide the evidence of impact…

Sight and Life is actively exploring these eggciting opportunities and would be interested in hearing from anyone keen to invest or partner with us, as we believe the egg just can’t be beaten.

To contact us regarding this project send an email to Kalpana.Beesabathuni@sightandlife.org

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