Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease . Epidemiological studies have shown that a high fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a lower risk of such chronic diseases . It is probable that antioxidants in fruits and vegetables prevent damage from harmful reactive oxygen species, which are continuously produced in the body during normal cellular functioning and introduced from exogenous sources . When the excessive amount of reactive oxygen species accumulates in vivo, it can cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. In particular, DNA is one of the most biologically significant targets for reactive oxygen species. It is generally accepted that the imbalance between oxidative DNA damage and repair contributes to the risk of cancer development.
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