The endogenous synthesis of both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in early life may be
insufficient, and the rate of membrane DHA incorporation depends mostly on maternal transfer and dietary supply (i.e., breastfeeding). DHA content in breast milk is very dependent on the mother’s diet and can be very low in populations living on a primarily plant-based diet with no or limited fish intake. In countries with low socioeconomic status, the availability of DHA and ARA in the food supply among pregnant women, infants and young children is significantly lower than the minimum recommended intake proposed by international organizations.
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