Anemia is common in HIV infection and independently associated with disease progression and mortality but the pathophysiology of HIV-related anemia is not well understood, especially in infancy. In a longitudinal co – hort study, authors measured hemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), serum transferrin receptor (TfR) and serum ferritin at 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months of age and hemo – globin at 9 and 12 months in HIV-negative and HIVpositive infants. At one year of age, HIV-positive infants were 5.26 (P < 0.001) times more likely to be anemic compared to HIV-negative infants and mean serum ferritin concentration declined sharply (by approximately 90%) between birth and 6 months, but was significantly higher among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative babies at all time points.
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