Revolutionary new technologies allow us to penetrate scientific frontiers and open vast new territories for discovery. In astronomy, the Hubble Space Telescope has facilitated an unprecedented view outwards, beyond our galaxy. Wherever the telescope is directed, scientists are making exciting new observations of the deep universe. Another revolution is taking place in two fields of “omics” research: proteomics and metabolomics. In contrast, this view is directed inwards, towards the complexity of biological processes in living organisms. Proteomics is the study of the structure and function of proteins expressed by an organism. Metabolomics is the study of small, low molecular weight metabolites and their cellular processes. The study of individual proteins and metabolites has a long tradition, but a collective approach to their study developed only recently. The terms “proteome” and “metabolome” were first mentioned in the published scientific literature in 19961 and 1998, respectively. The German botanist Hans Winkler (1877–1945) coined the related term “genome” more than seven decades earlier.
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