In the past decades, the world has seen a series of nutrition, epidemiologic and demographic changes that have occurred at different paces. In wealthy countries, these transitions have been almost linear. However, in middle-income countries – and some low-income countries, too – there has been overlap, resulting in a simultaneous burden of under- and overweight, referred to as the double burden of malnutrition.1 Latin American countries largely fall into this category and have seen their tradition- al lifestyles completely transformed. Advances in industrialization, agriculture and globalization have dramatically influenced patterns of food production and consumption, which have moved away from natural, nutrient-rich foods to those high in sodium, saturated fats and sugar.
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