Over two decades have passed since world leaders were introduced to the “new paradigm” of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) at the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition. The double was required to describe the paradox of malnutrition coexisting as undernutrition and overweight/obesity in the same population. As used in this paper, undernutrition includes issues of underweight (low weight-for-age in children; BMI < 18.5 in adults), stunting (low height-for-age), wasting (low weight-for height) and micronutrient defi ciencies. Adult overweight/obesity is defi ned as BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² and child overweight/obesity uses the WHO/UNICEF definition of weight-for-height ≥ +2 standard deviations above median.
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